Petrol is a fuel for petrol internal combustion engines (Otto’s engine). Petrol is a liquid mixture of volatile hydrocarbons with a typical distillation range of 30 ° C to 210 ° C (mainly alkanes, cycol alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes) separated from crude oil, and mixture of biofuels and other additives that improve its fuel properties. The usual number of carbon atoms in the individual hydrocarbon molecules that form the basis of the mixture is between 5 and 12. Petrol is most often produced by fractional distillation from crude oil. Petrol must meet the requirements specified in the standard EN STN 228, it is sulfur-free and unleaded, while its essential component must also be biofuel.
Types of petrol by octane number
The petrol´s octane number expresses resistance to detonation combustion. The higher the value of the octane number the better usage of petrol for engine with a higher compression ratio, which brings higher performance and higher efficiency. A low octane number results in “knocking” and can damage the engine. It is important to follow the manufacturer’s recommendations regarding the minimum octane level.
Petrol with octane number 91
This type of petrol is practically no longer sold in the Slovak Republic at present.
Petrol with octane number 95
In the Slovak Republic, it is petrol that is currently the best-selling.
Petrol with octane number 98
This type of petrol is sold at the petrol stations of SAPPO member companies as a highly additive and as a premium segment with an octane number of 100.
Type of petrol according to biofuel content and petrol labeling
Bioethanol and bio-ethyl-tert-butyl ether (bioETBE) are currently mostly used as biofuels in petrol, which according to the relevant legislation of the Slovak Republic is expressed as the so-called bioethanol equivalent. By bioethanol equivalent is meant either a mixture of bioethanol and bioETBE or just bioETBE.
Under current European legislation, all Member States are required to label dispensers at petrol stations with a single symbol. This is related to meeting the environmental requirements for reducing CO2 emissions from fuels. SAPPO member companies meet these requirements, in particular through the blending of biofuels into fossil fuels. Bioethanol and bio-ethyl tert-butyl ether (bioETBE) are currently used as main biofuels for petrol.
This means that currently at petrol stations in the Slovak Republic only petrol with biofuel component is sold. The volume of biofuel in the petrol is regulated by the relevant legislation of the Slovak Republic as well as by the quality standard STN EN 228.
The label for petrol consists of the letter E, which means ethanol and a number expressing its maximum percentage volume.
The symbol E5 indicates petrol that has a maximum ethanol volume of 5%.
The symbol E10 indicates petrol that contains up to 10% of ethanol.