Hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table. Hydrogen has the lowest atomic weight of all the elements. Under normal or standard conditions, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless gas. Hydrogen is non-toxic and does not harm the environment.
Hydrogen as an energy carrier can be used in many applications, wether for the production of electricity and heat, or in transport as a propulsion for cars. The history of the hydrogen engine dates back to the 19th century, when in 1806 François Isaac de Rivaz built the first piston internal combustion engine powered by a mixture of air and hydrogen gas.
Hydrogen can be used to power a number of different modes of transport. It can be stored and transported at high energy densities in liquid or gaseous form and can be used as a fuel for power industry, in transport sector and in heavy industry as a raw material.
Hydrogen is not an energy source in itself but a secondary energy carrier, just like electricity. Like battery-powered electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), are powered by electricity and produce only water vapor.
Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis, splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen using electricity from renewable sources. When produced in this way, the process is also almost emission-free and hydrogen is known as “green” hydrogen.
„Blue hydrogen“ is produced from natural gas and later decarbonised by carbon capture and storage to safely store all carbon emissions back to underground.
Hydrogen produced with energy from hydrocarbons, especially from natural gas, is known as “gray” hydrogen.